Phil/Psych 447: ESSAY 2. 2009


Nov. 12. Hand in 1-page, double-spaced proposal for topic, indicating the main question you want to answer and some of your sources. 5 marks. Extensions will be granted for reasons of documented medical illness or family emergency, but not workload. Late proposals receive 0 marks.

Nov. 24-Dec. 3. Present material to class, 16 minutes each. Do not read. 5 marks. 0 marks for no-shows.

Dec. 8. Hand in essay (hardcopy) to HH 365 (Philosophy Office). 50 marks. Include student number but not name. Extensions will be granted for reasons of documented medical illness or family emergency, but not workload (this essay was assigned Oct. 26). The final deadline to receive a mark this term is Dec. 14, 9 a.m. The penalty for plagiarism (passing another person's work off as your own) is a course grade of F and referral to the Associate Dean.

Essays should not be longer that 15 pages, typed, double spaced, (4,500 words, including references). You should consult sources other than the textbook: for pointers, see the references in the textbook. The Encylopedia of Cognitive Science the MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (both in reference at Porter Library) are good places to start. Indicate your sources. Include a word count. You can use any reference style you like, but indicate all your sources. Consult around 8-12 reliable sources. Google Scholar can be useful.

See: How to avoid plagiarism.

Essays will be evaluated on the basis of:

1. Relevance: pose and try to answer an important question concerning creativity.

2. Research: use resources beyond the textbooks.

3. Writing: write intelligibly.

4. Argument: make a compelling case for the answer you prefer, and consider alternative answers. Essays will be graded on the quality of the argument, not on the particular conclusion you reach.

The format does not matter, but make sure that you indicate all your sources, including Web sites. This is a research essay so you should use several sources in addition to the textbooks. Include at least one reference to the textbook.

The following headings are recommended but not required.

1. The issue. State the question you are trying to answer.

2. Alternatives. State possible answers to your question.

3. Evidence. Describe whatever philosophical, psychological, computational, and neurological evidence is relevant to the different potential answers.

4. Conclusion. On the basis of the evidence for the different alernatives, argue for what you see as the best answer to the question.

Strunk's Elements of Style

William Safire's rules for good writing:

No sentence fragments. Avoid run-on sentences they are hard to read. A writer must not shift your point of view. Reserve the apostrophe for it's proper use and omit it when its not needed. Write all adverbial forms correct. In their writing, everyone should make sure that their pronouns agree with its antecedent. Use the semicolon properly, use it between complete but related thoughts; and not between an independent clause and a mere phrase. Don't use no double negatives. Also, avoid awkward or affected alliteration. If I've told you once, I've told you a thousand times: Resist hyperbole. If any word is improper at the end of a sentence, a linking verb is. Avoid commas, that are not necessary. Verbs has to agree with their subjects. Avoid trendy locutions that sound flaky. And don't start a sentence with a conjunction. The passive voice should never be used. Writing carefully, dangling participles should be avoided. Unless you are quoting other people's exclamations, kill all exclamation points!!! Never use a long word when a diminutive one will do. Proofread carefully to see if you any words out. Use parallel structure when you write and in speaking. You should just avoid confusing readers with misplaced modifiers. Place pronouns as close as possible, especially in long sentences-such as those of ten or more words-to their antecedents. Eschew dialect, irregardless. Remember to never split an infinitive. Take the bull by the hand and don't mix metaphors. Don't verb nouns. Always pick on the correct idiom. Never, ever use repetitive redundancies. "Avoid overuse of 'quotation "marks."'" Never use prepositions to end a sentence with. Last but not least, avoid clichés like the plague.

Use of pronouns

Avoid gender-biased pronouns such as the generic "he" or "she". Do not use "they" or "their" as singular. In English, gender neutrality can almost always be achieved by using plurals. Example: "When people care about their friends" instead of "If someone cares about his friends" or "If someone cares about their friends".

Phil/Psych 447

Computational Epistemology Laboratory.

Paul Thagard

This page updated Nov. 16, 2009